The Life and Myth of Simon Girty

Simon Girty, by Mike Burke
Contemporary sketch of Simon Girty based on a 19th century engraving. Illustration by Mike Burke.

In the decades following the American Revolution, no one was more universally hated by frontier residents than former Indian captive Simon Girty.

Born near Chambersburg, Pa. in 1741, Girty and his brothers were captured and adopted by Indians during the French & Indian War. Released in 1759, he used his mastery of native languages to find work in and around Fort Pitt, first as a fur trader’s assistant, and later as an interpreter between the British and Native Americans.

Following the outbreak of the Revolution, his motivations became suspect, and in 1777 he was even tried—and acquitted—for treason. In early 1778, his distrust for his American colleagues and their unscrupulous treatment of Native Americans led him to flee Fort Pitt to join the British at Detroit, thus laying the cornerstone for his reputation as the quintessential frontier villain.

His subsequent role leading Indian war parties against frontier settlements established him in the eyes of his countrymen, as not only a traitor to his nation but also to his race. Later, his alleged conduct at the torture of Continental Army officer Col. William Crawford in 1782 cemented his fate as the most hated man on the frontier. More recent scholarship has revealed, however, that it was not Simon, but his brother James, who rebuked Crawford at his execution. Further, several reliable witnesses, such as former captive Jonathan Alder, recalled that Girty’s influence was “in several instances…the means of saving prisoners’ lives.” Close examination of the sources surrounding Crawford’s execution reveals a similar story.

A longtime friend of Crawford’s from his days at Fort Pitt, Girty attempted to intercede on the doomed officer’s behalf with Captain Pipe, the Delaware war chief in charge of the execution, but to no avail. Both the massacre of the Moravian Delawares at Gnadenhutten earlier that year and prior aggression from the Americans precluded any leniency in the matter. Despite the obvious risk involved in helping Crawford, Girty only ceased his attempts to prevail on the Delaware chief when his own life was threatened.

In the years following Crawford’s execution, Girty continued in service with the British in their ongoing war for control of the Ohio Country. Though he found continued demand for his services, he never fully reconciled his British, American, and Seneca identities. He died in relative obscurity at his home near Fort Malden, Ontario in 1818, though branches of his family reside in the Pittsburgh area to this day.

Learn more about regional captives at the Fort Pitt Museum’s new exhibition, Captured by Indians: Warfare & Assimilation on the 18th Century Frontier.

Mike Burke is the exhibit specialist at the Fort Pitt Museum.

19 thoughts on “The Life and Myth of Simon Girty

  1. I think that knowing the story of Simon Girty is vital for finding a deeper understanding of North America in the latter half of the 18th Century, and it is great that you are bringing him into the exhibit. Consider how conflicted his perspective must have been…His childhood was spent on the Western Frontier of the 13 Colonies with his father, who traded goods illegally until killed in a duel. Then at age 13, he was kidnapped by raiding Shawnee Indians, who later gave him to Mingo Chief, Guyasuta, who then later returned him to the British General Bouquet at Fort Pitt in 1764. He’s marched with George Washington, served as the voice of the Six Nations Native Confederation in peace talks, and fought with the British and the Iroquois against the American Rebels, until their final defeat at Detroit. This guy was all over the place in History.

    Because of Simon’s time with the Natives, he learned more than just their language, but their customs and rituals as well. When the American Revolution came around, he first sided with Washington’s rebels, but he came to believe that the Americans ultimately coveted the Native tribes’ lands. His actions serving as an “Indian Agent” and Translator for the British, as well as his continued loyalty to “Savages”, led some in Pittsburgh to accuse him of being a Loyalist to the Crown, forcing him to leave much of his family behind in Squirrel Hill, and drawing him into the center of one of the largest Cultural conflicts in History.

    America’s expansion into Native lands is an incredibly complicated story. It the story of a “New World” clashing into and obliterating the old one. Simon Girty is often portrayed in American History as a villain and a traitor, but I tend to see him as someone who made a moral judgement call, based on what he believed Americans would do to the Native people if the British were ever defeated, and Simon wasn’t wrong about that detail. He stood his ground and made a great deal of personal sacrifices for what he believed was the right thing; all to protect a Culture that wasn’t his. Simon Girty, in my opinion, is a guy worth learning more about, if you really want to know the whole story about America’s past.

  2. One of the best things about history….is to find new credible and factual sources to straighten out what we believe. Ditto on Girty’s story up above! JG Strother

  3. My grandfather’s people were from Pennsylvania. I remember an expression he would sometimes say, ” gyut got girty!” , when he was amazed at something. Now I know where that expression came from. Interesting man.

  4. Does anybody know anything about simon using a cave along rt 11-15 north of harrisburg to hide valuables of somekind. That was a story i heard growing up about simon girtys cave.

  5. I had never heard of Simon Girty until my parents, in a genealogy search in the 1980s, came across the account of our 4th great grandmother, Phoebe Tucker Cunningham and her capture, death of 4 children, then release 3 years later with the help of Girty. At that time, they made photo copies of a book they found in the State library in Charleston that held the account. Now in my 60s, I am taking up the genealogy searches with much more technology for my assistance. I am very proud of the story of her courage, and was further surprised to find memorials to her and a book written about her by Robert Thompson. Thank you for this article. I have become intrigued with this conflicted and bold man that saved my “skin”, through his intercession for Phoebe. History is unkind to those on the losing side. We rarely ask enough questions of the true context of their complex conflicts. I am continuing my study……

  6. I have heard of stories of Lewis Wetzel using a cave located in Wheeling, West Virginia. In my youth I set about and did find the cave.

    1. Was Phoebe related to Simon Girty?
      I have heard stories about Simon Sr.and Jr. My whole life. A lot of the family came from Canada so Simon was more a hero there but a traitor in the U.S.
      We have a family book with many stories about the Girtys.
      So interesting to hear different accounts about his life.

  7. There is supposed to be a hill in Richland Township called “Girty’s Knob,” where Girty was supposed to have camped? Does anyone know exactly where it’s located? Thanks.

    1. Pretty sure it is on Route 910, just a hundred or so feet west of 910s intersection with Meridian Road in Richland Township Pa (Gibsonia mailing address). That is the high point, I believe, in Richland, and, therefore made an excellent encampment for half-breed Girty and his indians. Believe there was a personal care home on south side of 910 where Girty’s Knob supposedly was. It is almost across the street from a dry cleaner and hair salon at the Mewridian Rd/Rt 910 intersection. Apparently mother’s would warn their misbehaving children that Simon Girty would get them if they misbehave. He and his indians would get paid by the scalp by whatever political side he supported (which changed over his career). I have done a fair amount of pre-1800s indian research in Pittsburgh North Hills. In my opinion, Girty is Richland Township’s most famous occupant. Extremely complex fellow, to say the least.

  8. Considering all that Simon Girdy experienced as a child/adolescent I pause to consider, did PTSD on the frontier or is it a twenty first century creation?

  9. Correction on Simon Girty’s place of birth. He was born a few miles above the current city of Harrisburg, Pa. in Dauphin County at Chamber’s Mill not Chambersburg (about 60 miles SSE of Harrisburg). The mill was operated by Joseph Chambers the elder brother of the founder of Chambersburg, Benjamin. Girty’s other brothers Thomas, James, and George were born there also. His father Simon Girty, Sr. was killed about 1750 in duel or fight with a man named Sanderson(Sanderson was acquitted), not a Delaware named “Fish” Simon Girty, Sr., was a muleskinner, Indian trader and guide to new settlers. After Simon Girty’s Sr. death his mother remarried a friend of his John Turner, they had a son John Turner, Jr. born in 1754. About 1756 Turner moved the family about forty miles up the Susquehanna to the area of Fort Granville, this is were Turner was tortured and burned to death and the family taken captive. They remained among the Indians some time, except the eldest brother Thomas, who was recued by Col. John Armstrong. During the Revolutionary War and Northwest Indian War George and James threw their lot in with Simon but Thomas and the younger 1/2 brother John Turner, Jr. remained loyal to the American side, and were scouts and rangers on the western Pennsylvania frontier.

  10. Fascinating history…I live in Wellsburg WV just north of Wheeling where the Girtys operated… there is a location known as Girtys Point in Short Creek WV which legend has it was an escape route os Simons.

  11. Girtys run along babcock blvd. down to the allegheny river . Always wanted to know more about that ? Grew up close to & always hung out along that creek as a kid . Anybody have info. ?

    1. My grandma on my dad’s side was Ruth Girt. She was a direct descendent of Simon. The family had changed their name to Girt because they were ashamed of Simon. I had always wondered about what made them change their name and have found so much info on Simon through the net. Very interesting reading I might add

  12. I went to public school in West Virginia, where West Virginia History is taught in the 8th Grade; what we were told in WV History concerning Simon Girty was that he was a very bad man indeed, who had turned against his fellow White people and run off to join the Indians, and that was pretty much it. Even as a kid I didn’t think that running off to join the Indians was a bad or unreasonable idea. It’s good to read an unbiased account of the man and what he was all about

  13. I’m a descendant of Thomas Girty. I grew up in Millvale right beside Girty’s Run. Last year we saved a swath of land above Millvale that has been called Girty’s Woods. I’m glad there has been a bit of a reckoning for Simon recently.

  14. We run into real difficulty when we try to either villify or excuse the actions of those of the past of whom accounts widely vary. Did Pipe order Girty to sit by and take no action? Or was it for Girty the same situation as when he witnessed the brutal death of his step-father, whom he hated desperately and watched with some satisfaction? Simon was a complex individual – and as you pointed out very well, oftentimes caught between his different identities: Betrayed by British superior, rejected and hated by fellow colonists, revered by the Native Americans – and by some accounts at times a participant in some of their brutalities. He witnessed Capt. Bird’s cruelty towards the colonist forts they destroyed, his lying to them and breaking truces, and did nothing to prevent his Shawnee companions from committing brutalities on those they captured (even after their safety and protection from Native Americans had be guaranteed). We can’t judge these actions/decisions by today’s standards, because the environments we live in are so different.

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