Meadowcroft Rockshelter

Dig into archaeological evidence that reveals the earliest signs of human habitation dating back 19,000 years.

If not for the curiosity of a Washington County, Pa., farmer six decades ago, Meadowcroft Rockshelter – the oldest site of human habitation in North America – might have never been discovered. In 1955, Albert Miller stumbled upon a groundhog hole on his family’s farm in Avella and uncovered what looked to be a prehistoric tool.

Miller chose to cover up the hole and carefully search for a professional archeologist who could properly assess the historical significance of the site. Almost two decades later in 1973, Miller finally connected with University of Pittsburgh anthropology professor Dr. James Adovasio who visited the farm and looked at the object found near the groundhog hole.

Astonished by the artifact, which was a prehistoric flint knife, Dr. Adovasio assembled a team of archaeology, anthropology and geology students to study the area as part of a curriculum. The field school’s excavation of the site over the next six years yielded nearly two million artifacts and ecofacts, including ancient stone tools, pottery fragments, and evidence of ice-age fire pits.

Further testing of the newly found artifacts concluded that the rock ledge overhang – naturally formed by the waters of Cross Creek – served as a campsite for prehistoric hunters and gatherers 19,000 years ago. Meadowcroft Rockshelter provided shelter for visitors with nearby fresh water springs and sources of plants and animals for food.

In 2005, the U.S. Secretary of the Interior designated Meadowcroft Rockshelter a National Historic Landmark.

Discover this important archeological treasure for yourself and visit Meadowcroft Rockshelter and Historic Village. Tours of the Rockshelter are available during regular operating hours and begin in the Meadowcroft visitor center.

During Meadowcroft’s open season, daily tours of the Rockshelter begin at the Visitors Center. Tour times vary and last approximately one hour.

On select dates, visitors can enjoy exclusive Insider Tours with James M. Adovasio, Ph.D., who achieved international acclaim with his archeological excavation of the Rockshelter in 1973. Dr. Adovasio’s lectures and special tours of the site occur periodically throughout the year.

For information about scheduling and reservations, please contact Meadowcroft at 724-587-3412 or

Explore the Rockshelter

Virtual Exhibit

Meadowcroft Rockshelter and Historic Village

This GigaPan is a series of interactive images that allows anyone to explore the Meadowcroft Rockshelter archaeological site from any computer. This project was made possible through the generous support of the Claude Worthington Benedum Foundation, and through partnership with Carnegie Mellon University’s CREATE Lab and Learning Media Design Center.